Trained Parrot Blog
HomeStoreNU PerchesTrees & StandsTrained Parrot BlogConsultationsTV/Shows



Subscribe to Blog
Your Name
Your Email
Dancing Senegal Parrot

Kili

Type: Senegal Parrot
Genus: Poicephalus
Species: Senegalus
Subspecies: Mesotypus
Sex: Female
Weight: 120 grams
Height: 9 inches
Age: 9 years, 5 months
Caped Cape Parrot

Truman

Type: Cape Parrot
Genus: Poicephalus
Species:Robustus
Subspecies: Fuscicollis
Sex: Male
Weight: 330 grams
Height: 13 inches
Age: 7 years, 8 months
Trick Training Guides
Taming & Training Guide
Flight Recall
Target
Wave
Fetch
Shake
Bat
Wings
Go through Tube
Turn Around
Flighted Fetch
Slide
Basketball
Play Dead
Piggy Bank
Nod
Bowling
Darts
Climb Rope
Ring Toss
Flip
Puzzle
Additional Top Articles
Treat Selection
Evolution of Flight
Clipping Wings
How to Put Parrot In Cage
Kili's Stroller Trick
Camping Parrots
Socialization
Truman's Tree
Parrot Wizard Seminar
Kili on David Letterman
Cape Parrot Review
Roudybush Pellets

List of Common Parrots:

Parakeets:
Budgerigar (Budgie)
Alexandrine Parakeet
African Ringneck
Indian Ringneck
Monk Parakeet (Quaker Parrot)

Parrotlets:
Mexican Parrotlet
Green Rumped Parrotlet
Blue Winged Parrotlet
Spectacled Parrotlet
Dusky Billed Parrotlet
Pacific Parrotlet
Yellow Faced Parrotlet

Lovebirds:
Peach Faced Lovebird
Masked Lovebird
Fischer's Lovebird
Lilian's (Nyasa) Lovebird
Black Cheeked Lovebird
Madagascar Lovebird
Abyssinian Lovebird
Red Faced Lovebird
Swindern's Lovebird

Lories and Lorikeets:
Rainbow Lorikeet

Conures:
Sun Conure
Jenday Conure
Cherry Headed Conure
Blue Crowned Conure
Mitred Conure
Patagonian Conure
Green Cheeked Conure
Nanday Conure

Caiques:
Black Headed Caique
White Bellied Caique

Poicephalus Parrots:
Senegal Parrot
Meyer's Parrot
Red Bellied Parrot
Brown Headed Parrot
Jardine's Parrot
Cape Parrot
Ruppell's Parrot

Eclectus:
Eclectus Parrot

African Greys:
Congo African Grey (CAG)
Timneh African Grey (TAG)

Amazons:
Blue Fronted Amazon
Yellow Naped Amazon
Yellow Headed Amazon
Orange Winged Amazon
Yellow Crowned Amazon

Cockatoos:
Cockatiel
Galah (Rose Breasted) Cockatoo
Sulphur Crested Cockatoo
Umbrella Cockatoo
Moluccan Cockatoo
Bare Eyed Cockatoo
Goffin's Cockatoo

Macaws:
Red Shouldered (Hahn's) Macaw
Severe Macaw
Blue And Gold Macaw
Blue Throated Macaw
Military Macaw
Red Fronted Macaw
Scarlet Macaw
Green Winged Macaw
Hyacinth Macaw

Evolution of Flight University Lecture

Comments (7)

By Michael Sazhin

Wednesday March 21st, 2012

Evolution of Flight - A comparison of the development of flight in flying organisms and aviation technology



On Tuesday March 20th, Professor Truman and his Teaching Assistant Kili presented a lecture about the Evolution of Flight at NYU. They brought me along to help illustrate the information they were presenting. The class they were presenting to is about the History of Aviation and Aviation Technology so it was a fairly relevant comparison to look at not only how aviation technology evolves with time but also how flight evolves in the natural world. The lecture covers the step from no flight to flight and then draws coincidental parallels between natural avian structures and human designed airplanes.

I'm not going to write out the details of the presentation as I have a video of the actual live event. I think this lecture can be of interest to bird lovers as well as airplane enthusiasts and aviators. Throughout the video are moments of the parrots flying around and performing tricks so check it out:



Here are the power point slides from the lecture in the video above.

Evolution of Flight

Questions about evolution of flight

Intelligent Design Parrot Cartoon"If Truman were intelligently designed, he'd have hands so he could write books on the fly!"


Homlogy of flying creatures

Cross Design

Convergent Evolution

Links to slow motion videos shown in presentation:
Bat flight in slow motion
Dragonfly flight in slow motion
Bee flight in slow motion
Parrot flight in slow motion

Analogy

Built for Flight

Becoming Airborne

Alternative uses for feathers

Evolution of Feathers

Graphic evolution of dinosaurs into birds

Fossil Cast of Archaeopteryx Lithographica Berlin SpecimenFossil Cast of Archaeopteryx Lithographica Berlin Specimen demonstrating teeth, bony tail, wing claws, and flight feathers

Fossil Cast of Pterodactylus KochiFossil Cast of Sparrow Sized Pterodactylus Kochi. It evolved flapping flight similar to birds but with skin membranes instead of feathers.

Convergent Design

Powered Flight

Alula & Slats

Extinct Design

Soaring

Questions


Part of: Blog Announcements
Kili Senegal Parrot Truman Cape Parrot Lecture Presentation Performance
Previous ArticleTrained Parrot HomeNext Article

Comments

Post Your Response


yeliabttocs

Posted on March 22, 2012 03:20PM

Thanks for sharing the fun and informative presentation. I love the South Park evolution lead in you used.

fccontantino

Posted on March 23, 2012 03:03PM

Hi Michael! I am your fan. I live in Brazil and I also love aviation. I saw a video where you were the pilot. It is a hobby or do you work with it? I quite appreciate your work with the parrots. Congratulations.


rebeccaturpeinen

Posted on March 23, 2012 05:09PM

I watched the hole thing... very interesting! Good job, you give lectures often? I have to admit, I kept on thinking 'what if they poop on someone??' :lol: But they were so well behaved!!


Michael

Posted on March 23, 2012 05:26PM

This was the 3rd year I've done a lecture for this professor's aviation courses. I've been giving one every year as a guest speaker. The first one was about gliders, soaring, and soaring weather. The second lecture I brought Truman along to help me discuss ornithopters. That lecture was about failures to build flying machines by focusing too much on birds and how it took 100 years since making an artificial flying design that humans were able to put all they've learned into the [url=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0E77j1imdhQ:2gvaa3ea]first (and not that great) human powered ornithopter[/url:2gvaa3ea]. I have the freedom to choose any topic I wish to discuss so I've been jumping around to whatever I'm interested in the moment. However, I have a special place for that boundary between bird and plane so it has been a common theme. The main reason I brought both birds this year is because Truman is bigger but Kili is better at letting me grab her wings to show. I can actually hold her, open her wings, and wiggle her alula (thumb) to show how it works. Truman gets agitated and doesn't let me do it for long. Hopefully in 2 years he'll be like Kili in this regard. Kili just loves being grabbed and handled. She actively seeks it out and puts herself into my hands. They don't poop on the fly so that wasn't a concern. They fly around the apartment but only poop from their perches. That's why I brought a training perch with me. If anyone has any questions on the subject matter, feel free to ask.


rebeccaturpeinen

Posted on March 23, 2012 07:19PM

I have a question... You talked about how flight evolved from no flight to flight, this ofcourse also happened in the natural world but what is your theory on birds that went from flight to being flightless? I assume they still have the same structures in their wings as flighted birds. But wouldnt you agree it is definitly an advantage in being flighted as opposed to having wings and flightless? Why did they lose this ability when it is clearly an advantage? Why hasnt evolution given them arms again when they didnt need their wings anymore, arent they completely useless now? These things make me question evolution and the intelligence og it. You do talk about Truman not being an 'intelligent design' but it is one thing for something not to be smart or highly intelligent, its another when it just seems stupid... why would evolution take a species and have it go backwards so the evolvment in the end turns out to be a disadvantage. Or maybe evolution just screwed up when it comes to these flightless birds... the human race certainly seems to be going backwards. Just interested on your theory on the subject of going from non-flight to flight and then to non-flight.


cml

Posted on March 23, 2012 08:11PM

[quote="rebeccaturpeinen":1lbgl067] Or maybe evolution just screwed up when it comes to these flightless birds... [/quote:1lbgl067] Rebecca, penguins for example, do "fly" - but in a different fluid (air is a fluid), namely water! Evolution has just adapted them for that task as their hunting grounds are below the surface .


Michael

Posted on March 23, 2012 08:45PM

[quote="rebeccaturpeinen":3me35u0n]I have a question... You talked about how flight evolved from no flight to flight, this ofcourse also happened in the natural world but what is your theory on birds that went from flight to being flightless?[/quote:3me35u0n] This is actually quite simple and more easily understandable than gaining flight initially. The mechanisms for gaining flight are rather complex. The mechanism for losing it in a flighted creature is simply to stop using it. [quote="rebeccaturpeinen":3me35u0n]I assume they still have the same structures in their wings as flighted birds. But wouldnt you agree it is definitly an advantage in being flighted as opposed to having wings and flightless? Why did they lose this ability when it is clearly an advantage?[/quote:3me35u0n] They do have the same bones and feathers as flighted birds indeed. However, usually what makes them flightless is that the wings are disproportionately small and weak that they cannot fly with them. But I don't agree that it is "definitely an advantage in being flighted as opposed to having wings and flightless." Now before someone makes a smart comment I'm talking in the long term evolutionary sense and not related to keeping our parrots flighted because they are physically different. You think flight is an advantage because you are using to seeing birds using flight to their advantage. That is because in most parts of the world there are benefits to flight. However, this isn't always the case. New Zealand and Pacific islands are an excellent example. At some point in history migratory birds got blown off course and became misplaced on some remote pacific island. They settled on the island as food (plants/insects) were plentiful while there were no predators as they cannot swim across the ocean. Thus these (still flighted birds) lived on the island. Some of their descendants were born with bigger legs while others with the same. Well the ones with big legs could run faster and catch ground insects better or reach new food sources before others who couldn't run as fast. This is a concept of evolving greater ground adaptation. Remember, most birds are arboreal because the ground is teaming with predators. However, in the absence of predators they are free to spend much time on the ground foraging for food. Without predators they are free to eat and grow more than normal so they tend to become quite bulky. Now on the other hand, flight is very costly in terms of energy. Flighted birds have to be lean to avoid excess weight. But since they spend most of their time on the ground, following generations end up using flight less and less. No new evolutionary adaptations develop for improving flight. Meanwhile those other advantages like bigger legs, bodies, etc continue. So in a way, they evolve themselves out of their wings. So the wings remain small or smaller (why waste resources on what you don't need anyway). Chickens are a great example. They have been artificially selected for being meaty. Well they feed on the ground and have no use for wings. There is no selective pressure for improved wings. So as the chickens become bigger breasted on the same little wings, they become less capable of flying. This isn't a disadvantage because even free range chickens just run around eating worms and seeds on the ground. Thus being flightless is actually an advantage[/b:3me35u0n] under certain circumstances. The once flighted birds begin to occupy niches unoccupied by the typical terrestrial animals. Yet they still have advantages of being birds like having feathers for insulation. [quote="rebeccaturpeinen":3me35u0n]Why hasnt evolution given them arms again when they didnt need their wings anymore, arent they completely useless now?[/quote:3me35u0n] Well that's just the thing. Evolution doesn't "give" anything just because it might be nice. This is why I had the Truman picture saying it might be nice to have arms but the trade off of having wings is that the wings really just are the arms with special feathers. Wings are specialized arms where some fingers were lost and others fused to save weight. All the primary feathers are attached to a single finger anyway and the alula (thumb) is used for landing. Otherwise unnecessary. So going from this stick of an arm to hands isn't simple. But nor is it particularly necessary. Watch how a chicken or pigeon go around "armless" and yet they manage to get by. [quote="rebeccaturpeinen":3me35u0n]These things make me question evolution and the intelligence og it. You do talk about Truman not being an 'intelligent design' but it is one thing for something not to be smart or highly intelligent, its another when it just seems stupid... why would evolution take a species and have it go backwards so the evolvment in the end turns out to be a disadvantage.[/quote:3me35u0n] You're right. To say that birds are designed to have wings without arms or flightless wings really does seem stupid! But the fact of evolution really allows it to all make sense. Being flightless isn't a disadvantage in the environments in which it occurs or it wouldn't happen. If a bird were born flightless in north america or europe it wouldn't live to make it out of the nest. Yet in places where there are no predators, all the food is on the ground, there is no competition on the ground, etc, the advantage of being flightless is that the bird can be bigger and puts its resources into elements that ARE to its advantage. Don't you love seeing [url=http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDQQtwIwAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.youtube.com%2Fwatch%3Fv%3D9T1vfsHYiKY&ei=J-BsT_L2BIiftwfBs8igBg&usg=AFQjCNEqYp7oZ6_t32YUKebsFTyqWxm3PQ:3me35u0n]videos of the Kakapo, a flightless parrot of New Zealand[/url:3me35u0n]? Could you imagine that hunk of lard being able to fly??? No way, too big and heavy. It wouldn't be possible to have wings strong enough for that to fly. Yet without predators or ground animals eating the food there, the Kakapo can revert to living in a smaller area of land than flighted parrots in other parts of the world and it can be a bigger bird. Surely that's an advantage where it lives (at least till humans/predators were introduced). So I hope this helps you understand that evolution does in fact serve a purpose whether it appears to be going forward or back because it is relative to the environment and circumstance. Just because we envy flight or think of it as progress, success is really measured by results. If the result of losing flight leads a species to survive, then that is progress in the evolutionary sense.

Post Your Response

Trained Parrot HomeAboutSitemapParrot Training PerchesThe Parrot ForumPoicephalus.orgYoutube Channel
Trained Parrot is a blog about how to train tricks to all parrots and parakeets. Read about how I teach tricks to Truman the Brown Necked Cape Parrot including flight recall, shake, wave, nod, turn around, fetch, wings, and play dead. Learn how you can train tricks to your Parrot, Parrotlet, Parakeet, Lovebird, Cockatiel, Conure, African Grey, Amazon, Cockatoo or Macaw. This blog is better than books or DVDs because the information is real, live, and completely free of charge. If you want to know how to teach your parrot tricks then you will enjoy this free parrot training tutorial.
Trained Parrot site content Copyright 2010-2017 Michael Sazhin. Reproduction of text, images, or videos without prior permission prohibited. All rights reserved.