I hate getting bit. In fact I hate it so much that I make sure that I don't. I have approached countless birds – that aren't mine – at stores, rescues, and other people's homes and I rarely if ever get bit. This is because I don't put myself in harm's way. I adjust to the bird and let the bird adjust to me. I read the bird and act in a predictable way to help the bird read me. This article is about offering food to a parrot from your hand that you don't know or think will bite.
If you don't personally know a bird (and by personally I mean where it has stepped up for you before; just cause it has stepped up for others doesn't mean you know that it will do the same for you), the safest approach to keeping your blood inside your skin is to take caution as though the bird could bite. On the other hand, if you already got bit by the bird offering food in the past or know that others have, then you especially need to follow these steps. Even if your bird doesn't bite you, you will still want to familiarize yourself with these steps in case you encounter someone else's parrot or someone else needs to encounter your parrot!
Being able to read and understand body language is important but sometimes you just don't know. If it's your own parrot that you have a long experience with, you may be able to read the body language and avoid a bite on yourself or someone else. But if you are visiting a bird or just acquired a new one, until you see body language in context, you just may not know.
Offering food from your hand is the first essential step to being able to apply positive reinforcement training to teach the bird to step up, accept head scratches, and more. Until you can get within touching range of the parrot, inevitably you will end up relying on negative reinforcement and positive/negative punishment. So to have greater success with the parrot and to get it to like you, it is important to get to the point of being able to safely offer food as soon as possible. There are safe ways of offering food and then there are ways to get bit instead.
I really came to realize the importance of this procedure when my friend Ginger, from Ginger's Parrots Rescue, got bit by Santina. Here is someone who deals with many birds and surely knows what to do but still mistakenly put herself in harms way. A few weeks prior, my little sister got bit while offering food to Santina as well. On the flip side, I watched my brother use my same approach and was able to handle the large macaw with no trouble.
One of the problems I have is that Santina is super sweet to me and never bites me (since I brought her home from the rescue) so I don't really know her aggressive body language. It kind of has to do with dancing around and being fluffy but then again she looks much the same way when she wants a head scratch from me. Since she has experienced so few other people, inevitably the first few end up being test dummies to see if she will bite and what kind of postures she displays at that time.
First, you are going to need to find out what the parrot actually likes as a treat. Offering something the bird doesn't like won't protect you from a bite. On the other hand offering something the parrot would like can quite likely become a sufficient distraction from biting. Finding out the bird's favorite treats was already covered in this article. But if you're approaching a bird without knowing what it likes, some go to treats include millet spray for budgies/cockatiels, sunflower seeds for small parrots, almonds for medium parrots, and Brazil nuts for large ones. Not only are these treats favored by most parrots but they are also large (relative to the size of the bird's beak). This will improve the likelihood that the bird's entire beak will be occupied by the treat and not leave room for a bite. Also, the treat is so big that you can protect yourself behind the extended treat as I will explain.
The first step is to leave the bird alone! All too often people get too excited about wanting to handle a bird that they overwhelm it. Instead, give the bird some time to get comfortable with your presence. If you have a visitor apply the same procedures to guide their interaction with your bird. At first, ignore the bird completely. Don't even look at it. With a little more time, from a distance begin to interact with it remotely. Make slow but deliberate steps toward the bird with the special treat in hand. If at any point the bird begins to flip out (jumping off perch, flying away, snap biting toward you in the air, etc), you've got a lot more of an issue than just offering food without getting bit. That type of situation is beyond the scope of this article, please refer to my book instead. But if all you are dealing with is slightly aggressive posture, eye pinning, or other agitation that is not extreme, continue slowly moving closer. Maintain a pace that evokes the least of this type of reaction until you can get into range.
Never put yourself closer to the parrot than the distance it would take for the bird to bite you. Except in some extreme cases, most flighted parrots will not fly to attack you. If they get too scared they will just fly away. If in a cage or clipped, the parrot is left with no choice but to bite if it feels trapped. This is why we are going to work on the careful no-bite food exchange to show the bird that first of all absolutely nothing bad will happen (negative reinforcement) and that in fact something good will happen (treat, positive reinforcement). At first the negative reinforcement element actually plays a more substantial role in early training but if the treats are desirable, positive reinforcement will quickly take over.
When you can reach the distance within a few feet from the bird, it is time to slow down and exercise greater caution. Show the treat in very plain sight. Maybe even pretend to eat it and make a big deal about how nice it is. So while up till this point the goal was to move closer to the bird without freaking it out too much, from this point the goal is to move the treat toward the bird without getting bit. Realize that the bird has different ranges of reach. It can bite what is right at its beak, it can reach forward and bite and it can make a lunge snap bite that can reach furthest. What I do is walk up to a point where I can reach the bird with my arms without moving my feet any more. I reach the treat at a slow but constant rate toward the bird. I keep going closer and watch for the bird to teach to take it. I put the treat just far enough that the bird can stretch its maximum range to try to get it from me. If the bird is looking at and reaching for the treat, I am strongly assured that the bird wants the treat and shouldn't bite. I don't let my guard down completely yet. While holding the treat at the furthest point, I continue to reach it closer toward the bird until it is just close enough to take the treat but not close enough to bite yet. I hold the treat loosely and make it easy for the bird to take it out from between my fingers. As soon as the bird grasps the treat I take my hand back out of bite range but I don't go away. I stand around while the bird eats the treat to build more trust. If the bird avoids eating because I am imposing too much, I might take a step or two back but I still try to stay close while it eats. Then I recede to get another treat and try again.
After several treats, the parrot should start to become more at ease because it knows that all you want to do is provide a treat. On the other hand you should be able to get more confident that the bird isn't trying to bite. Depending on how aggressive/scared the bird is, the rate of your continued progress will vary. Maybe you have now gained the trust of an already tame bird and it will let you scratch its head and step up. Or maybe this is just the beginning of a long taming process. But either way, with the power to apply positive reinforcement in your training, things have the potential for major improvement from this point further.
Try to make the first approach happen within the span of about 30 seconds from when you begin to approach the bird to when the treat is in the beak. With success, keep trying to cut that time in half. You don't want to take too long any more than you want to rush. A rush can scare the bird into biting. But drawing the process out too long can lose the parrot's interest in the treat and hinder your chances at success.
If the parrot drops the treat but doesn't bite, try finding a more desired treat. Look for greater interest from the parrot's gaze. If the parrot bites, end the session and focus more on finding very desired treats and practice your approach to be able to bring in a treat without giving the parrot enough reach to bite. If done properly, you should not end up receiving a bite using this approach. The more times the parrot can take food without biting, the less likely the bird will consider biting as something to do in similar circumstances in the future.
This approach helps you have a more confident approach because it protects you from being bit but also is more comfortable for the parrot (thereby reducing the desire to bite just the same). The parrot will learn just to get treats for nothing and success will come with practice. For more information about taming and training parrots, please refer to my complete approach presented in my book, The Parrot Wizard's Guide to Well-Behaved Parrots. Here is a video in real time of me teaching Ginger to approach Santina in a way that gets her to take the treats rather than bite.
I don't see the video link.
In your second still pic of Ginger and Santina, is that mark on Ginger's finger where Santina bit her? I know Ginger must be very experienced with birds, and she's probably taken training lessons from you and read your book, please explain what did she do, or not do, that got her bit? Michael, how do you know if Santina isn't favoring males over females? (Ie: she bit Ginger and your sister, but not you and your brother).
The video is at the bottom and quite essential. In case you missed it: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hhb9xbSFulI
A lot of explanations are in the video besides the article. Ginger runs a rescue and handles lots of birds so I didn't expect her to rush Santina like that. On the other hand I think she assumed Santina was really nice cause she saw me handling her. A bit of a misconception that led to that initial bite but with the work we put in, Santina was eventually taking nuts and not biting.
As for "preferring men vs women" I think is a whole load of nonsense and people should stop saying that at all. Coming from the rescue I was told she preferred women and hated men. At my place she prefers me cause I'm the only one and I'm training her. And then she's fine with my brother cause he approaches her right. The others just did it wrong so how does it have much to do with gender? I think people get too hung up on these sorts of coincidence and use that to discourage themselves or others from working through issues. The bird doesn't like many people at the moment but we'll work on resolving that all around.
Ok, viewed the video and it answered a lot of questions, thank you!. From the video, what I noticed when Ginger walked up quickly was that Santina already appeared in a posture that was defensive, beak was open, head was down, eyes pinned, ruffled feathers, and appeared poised to bite - which she did. (Ginger, sorry you got bit!). At that point, I would have been hesitant at getting my fingers near that big beak! Later, Ginger keyed in on not having her other hand within Santina's site, and once Santina could see it she did calm down a bit more. With Ginger moving slower and you talking her through the steps, Santina was able to be calm and take the nut. Good job! Santina's not quite ready yet for the kids at the park but, with time, she will get there! Thank you for the video and pointers.
We both got birds around the same time so I have been waiting for update with you and Santina. The video explains a lot of what you have been up to. I did write a comment on the Youtube video about do you think at her age you will be able to trust her around the public eventually ? Anyway I to have been working with Luci, the Palm Cockatoo that I was given around Christmas of 2013, also she will be 15 years old April 1014. A few things to over come but all is doing good. Love your video's, keep them coming.
Well look at it this way... Kili used to bite people when I was screwing up with her in the beginning but since we worked on it, doesn't bite anymore. Truman, who I raised correctly from the beginning, has literally bit no one. Santina never bites me since I got her from the rescue. If I can transpose her stimulus not to bite me, toward others, then the problem would be solved. Granted I gotta be careful and work with people I know/trust to get us to that point, I don't think it's impossible.
I have ways to make birds get used to people without people getting hurt. First I have to build the maximum trust and relationship with the bird so that it would be entirely under my influence. Can't necessarily control other people (heck look at Ginger who went too quickly). Eventually when Santina gets used to wearing a harness, taking her out in public to watch (with no touching) is a good way to begin to establish on biting. If nobody touches, there's no need/opportunity to bite. Then I will begin to introduce touching where the bite is impossible by holding her beak shut with my own hand. If she'd try to bite anyway, she'd get me and not the stranger but using this technique I don't tend to get bit either cause my birds don't want to bite me. Thus I can begin to introduce treats and head scratches from myself and strangers in exchange for her tolerating others while also ensuring that she can't bite someone else. Also you'd be surprised how far much less propense a parrot is to bite someone else when you get it outside on a harness. Everything else is so much more scary, there are no territory issues, and strange people are still more familiar than many other things. If Santina can be as good with public as she was with me 1 week into having her, we'll never have a problem. All I gotta do is teach her that everyone else is just as good to her.
That said, I probably won't ever let anyone handle her without my direct control cause I just don't want to be liable for the offshot chance she bites someone. I take the chance that Kili and Truman won't bite anyone because if they did, a dozen sorries will probably do it cause the kid would stop crying by then and realize it was nothing. Truman's beak is a bit too big for what I'd be comfortable with chancing around others but with his absolutely perfect track record, it is a very reasonable chance to take. Kili is more likely to bite someone but she is small, doesn't bite hard, and frankly she too hasn't bit anyone in a very long time. Regardless of Santina's track record, it's just a chance I cannot take so I will make sure we only have controlled interactions.